This peasant rebellion was again a Don Cossacks rebellion but the event that ignited it was the issue of runaway serfs seeking refuge in the Don Cossack region (again) and so because this region attracted a large number of runaway peasants from other regions in Russia,they filled the ranks as a matter of self preservation to not be sent back to their Russian masters.
This rebellion was in the region of Astrakhan which is right on the southern border.
We are now way past the Time of Troubles which melded in the 18th century into a period of ever increasing authoritarian centralized rule which was particularly onerous on peasants and the lower classes,many of whom fled their servitude into the wilds of southern Russia from the large cities of Russia. Peter the Great took away the time limit on return of serfs to their masters and even hired bounty hunters who worked under one of the many minor princes of Russia,Yuri Dolgoruk,to go into the Poland region and the southern Cossack region to bring back runaway serfs living there.
Cossacks were a group that lived in this southern region that was still considered fairly lawless. They guarded Russia's borders from the constant threat of Turkic tribal raids in exchange for autonomy. The Cossacks that lived around the Don River were called Don Cossacks. And for the last century or so,there had been a build up of tension between the Cossacks and the state as the process of tightening up the reins of centralized authority pushed against the Cossack independence.
Coupled with this regional issue, was a general feeling of resentment as Russia's rulers tried to bring Russian society up on a par with western societies in order to become competitive on the world stage. Russian masses were deeply religious and conservative and saw these changes that Peter the Great was instituting as threatening the world they knew (both in regard to their traditional way of life and to their Orthodox faith) with the introduction of new foreign ideas. So threatening were these "western" ideas that the narrative of Peter as equated with the anti-Christ or an imposter instead of the real tsar was common among the people.
And then back to the Cossack region specifically,as Peter the Great's autocratic centralized bureaucracy expanded,it took over land that had been in the public domain. And in southern Russia,the salt sites were a resource that the Cossacks saw as a necessity for their way of life (the preservation of their food) and thus an attack upon their way of life,a way to short change them economically and an encroachment upon their semi-autonomous political state.
So both in the general population outside of the more modern cities and specifically, in a region that saw itself as more independent than the rest of Russia and unwilling to give that freedom up - rural Russia was just a tenderbox waiting for a spark.
While the locals in the Cossack region may have resented all of the runaway peasants using up their resources,what they resented even more the fact of these government agents coming into their land and acting like they owned it to grab some poor peasant to put back under the yoke of some rich noble. So much was their hatred of these bounty hunters that they not only refused to give up fugitive peasants,but on October 8,1707,a small band of local military commanders led by Bulavin,ambushed and murdered Prince Yuri Dolgoruki and his men in one of the villages and that was the spark that lit the Bulavin Rebellion.
It is important to note,that as in previous Cossack rebellions,they were not against the institution of the tsar(who of course signed the Cossack paycheck),only those they felt were wrongly in power at the moment (which goes along with the "anyone who would implement these reforms that go against the foundation of the Orthodox church must be either the anti-Christ or an impostor or is the real tsar,but is being influenced by evil people. Whoever in Moscow who is doing this must be removed" trending thoughts of the day).
The army was easily able to put down this rebellion,factions of Bulavin's own Cossack followers turned against him. He was found dead of a single shot to the head on July 7,1708 - whether self inflicted or internal treachery is not known. After his death,the rebellion petered out.
And of course,just as in every other rebellion,it gave rise to more restrictions,this time to tighten the net on the independent Cossack states,to the point 2,000 Cossacks fled to the Crimean Khanate under their leader,Ignat Nekrasov.